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Article
Islam under the Rule of Law in Europe: How Consistent Is the Human Rights Test?
Religions 2021, 12(10), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12100857 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
This contribution draws attention to human rights as an instrument of justice to deal with requests that are either made directly or may prove indirectly to be relevant to Muslims who claim the protection of freedom of religion and faith in contemporary European [...] Read more.
This contribution draws attention to human rights as an instrument of justice to deal with requests that are either made directly or may prove indirectly to be relevant to Muslims who claim the protection of freedom of religion and faith in contemporary European societies. The analysis is distributed over two distinct but complementary illustrations of such claims. The position defended here is that the key to a successful multicultural society lies in enabling adherents of all religions and beliefs, and thus also Muslims, to participate to the same extent, fully and actively, in social life, both as citizens and as private individuals. The challenge lies in finding the balance between looking after the interests of the majority society and meeting the needs and wishes of minority groups and communities, including those communities that are perceived to be ‘new’. Full article
Article
Human Rights beyond Ideal Morality: The ECHR and Political Judgment
Laws 2021, 10(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/laws10040077 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
The aim of the article is to propose and defend a distinctively political reading of the European Convention of Human Rights. Drawing on a range of different sources, my core claim is that realistically construed considerations of political legitimacy, stemming from the institutional [...] Read more.
The aim of the article is to propose and defend a distinctively political reading of the European Convention of Human Rights. Drawing on a range of different sources, my core claim is that realistically construed considerations of political legitimacy, stemming from the institutional context within which ECtHR judges operate, can explain and justify a morally non-ideal understanding of Convention rights on the part of the Court. I call the kind of non-ideal reading of the ECHR that I defend ‘political’ because it results from distinctive concerns regarding the Court’s legitimacy in a wider context marked by the circumstances of politics, broadly understood. These concerns depend on apprehending the ECHR as a distinctive institutional-cum-legal regime or system whose stability has political underpinnings. Tackling them requires resorting to some form of political judgment aimed at working out how various normative parameters, including legitimacy and stability, interact with a morally ideal (or ‘first-best’) understanding of any given ECHR right. Full article
Perspective
Are There Limits in Explainability of Prognostic Biomarkers? Scrutinizing Biological Utility of Established Signatures
Cancers 2021, 13(20), 5087; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13205087 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Prognostic biomarkers can have an important role in the clinical practice because they allow stratification of patients in terms of predicting the outcome of a disorder. Obstacles for developing such markers include lack of robustness when using different data sets and limited concordance [...] Read more.
Prognostic biomarkers can have an important role in the clinical practice because they allow stratification of patients in terms of predicting the outcome of a disorder. Obstacles for developing such markers include lack of robustness when using different data sets and limited concordance among similar signatures. In this paper, we highlight a new problem that relates to the biological meaning of already established prognostic gene expression signatures. Specifically, it is commonly assumed that prognostic markers provide sensible biological information and molecular explanations about the underlying disorder. However, recent studies on prognostic biomarkers investigating 80 established signatures of breast and prostate cancer demonstrated that this is not the case. We will show that this surprising result is related to the distinction between causal models and predictive models and the obfuscating usage of these models in the biomedical literature. Furthermore, we suggest a falsification procedure for studies aiming to establish a prognostic signature to safeguard against false expectations with respect to biological utility. Full article
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Article
Penetration Depth Prediction of Infinity Shaped Laser Scanning Welding Based on Latin Hypercube Sampling and the Neuroevolution of Augmenting Topologies
Materials 2021, 14(20), 5984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14205984 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
This paper builds an infinity shaped (“∞”-shaped) laser scanning welding test platform based on a self-developed motion controller and galvanometer scanner control gateway, takes the autogenous bead-on-plate welding of 304SS with 3 mm thick specimens as the experimental objects, designs the experimental parameters [...] Read more.
This paper builds an infinity shaped (“∞”-shaped) laser scanning welding test platform based on a self-developed motion controller and galvanometer scanner control gateway, takes the autogenous bead-on-plate welding of 304SS with 3 mm thick specimens as the experimental objects, designs the experimental parameters by the Latin hypercube sampling method for obtaining different penetration depth welded joints, and presents a methodology based on the neuroevolution of augmenting topologies for predicting the penetration depth of “∞”-shaped laser scanning welding. Laser power, welding speed, scanning frequency, and scanning amplitude are set as the input parameters of the model, and welding depth (WD) as the output parameter of the model. The model can accurately reflect the nonlinear relationship between the main welding parameters and WD by validation. Moreover, the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of the welding depth is about 6.2%. On the whole, the proposed methodology and model can be employed for guiding the actual work in the main process parameters’ preliminary selection and lay the foundation for the study of penetration morphology control of “∞”-shaped laser scanning welding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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LYMQY Outdoor Camping Barbecue 8-Piece Set, Camp Kitchen Tools C
Editorial
Design of Materials for Bone Tissue Scaffolds
Materials 2021, 14(20), 5985; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14205985 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
The strong impulse recently experienced by the manufacturing technologies as well as the development of innovative biocompatible materials has allowed the fabrication of high-performing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The design process of materials for bone tissue scaffolds represents, nowadays, an issue of [...] Read more.
The strong impulse recently experienced by the manufacturing technologies as well as the development of innovative biocompatible materials has allowed the fabrication of high-performing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The design process of materials for bone tissue scaffolds represents, nowadays, an issue of crucial importance and the object of study of many researchers throughout the world. A number of studies have been conducted, aimed at identifying the optimal material, geometry, and surface that the scaffold must possess to stimulate the formation of the largest amounts of bone in the shortest time possible. This book presents a collection of 10 research articles and 2 review papers describing numerical and experimental design techniques definitively aimed at improving the scaffold performance, shortening the healing time, and increasing the success rate of the scaffold implantation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Materials for Bone Tissue Scaffolds)
Case Report
Ischiocavernosus Muscle Release for Urethral Obstruction Treatment after Pelvic Symphyseal Distraction Osteotomy in a Cat with Pelvic Stenosis
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(10), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100225 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Symphyseal distraction osteotomy (SDO) with a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) spacer is an effective surgical treatment for cats with pelvic stenosis. This study reports the successful treatment of urethral obstruction due to ischiocavernosus muscle (IM) tension after SDO with a PMMA spacer. A 2-year-old [...] Read more.
Symphyseal distraction osteotomy (SDO) with a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) spacer is an effective surgical treatment for cats with pelvic stenosis. This study reports the successful treatment of urethral obstruction due to ischiocavernosus muscle (IM) tension after SDO with a PMMA spacer. A 2-year-old castrated male Korean domestic shorthair feline had megacolon and pelvic canal stenosis. The ratio of the maximal diameter of the colon to the L5 length and the pelvic canal diameter ratio were 1.6 and 0.45, respectively. Pelvic SDO was performed with a PMMA spacer, leading to pelvic canal enlargement (pelvic canal diameter ratio: 0.73). Two days after surgery, dysuria was identified immediately after removing the preoperatively placed urinary catheter. Complete blood counts and serum biochemical profiles were within the reference intervals, and a positive contrast retrograde urethrogram confirmed urethral obstruction at the level of the membranous–pelvic urethra region. Increased tension of the IM leading to a narrowed urethra was suspected as the cause of urethral obstruction. After IM release at the level of origin on the ischium, the patient had an uneventful recovery with spontaneous urination. Muscle release resulted in excellent functional restoration, with no intraoperative or postoperative complications reported during the 12-month long-term follow-up. Therefore, SDO with IM release could be a feasible therapeutic option for severe pelvic stenosis without complications, such as urethral obstruction, in cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Orthopaedic and Traumatology in Dog and Cat)
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Article
Water Demand Management Based on Water Consumption Data Analysis in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi
Water 2021, 13(20), 2827; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202827 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
In Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the population and water demand have nearly tripled in the last two decades. Thus, it has become critical to curtail the growing water demand. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Abu Dhabi’s [...] Read more.
In Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the population and water demand have nearly tripled in the last two decades. Thus, it has become critical to curtail the growing water demand. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Abu Dhabi’s residential water demand management through the installation of water-saving fittings. The analysis of water consumption time-series data revealed that water consumption of the three water user categories was significantly different. Briefly: water-tariff exempt users consumed 95.19 m3/d/connection in 2019, followed by nationals with 5.14 m3/d/connection, and expats at 0.7 m3/d/connection. Nationals began saving water in 2011, which was earlier than the water tariff revision of 2015. In a newly developed area of Khalifa City, the water consumption of new residents was 46.0% less than that of old residents, indicating the effectiveness of water-saving fittings installed in new homes following the Housing Rules’ requirements. Then, based on the estimated number of new connections and the fittings’ saving efficiencies, we estimated that water-saving fittings contributed to 73.1% of the water savings since 2011. These results strongly recommend the introduction of an incentive or subsidy for owners of old houses to replace their outdated fittings with water-saving ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Pollution and Sanitation)
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Article
Short Daily Exposure to Environmental Enrichment, Fluoxetine, or Their Combination Reverses Deterioration of the Coat and Anhedonia Behaviors with Differential Effects on Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Chronically Stressed Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 10976; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222010976 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a high impact on the worldwide population. To overcome depression, antidepressant drugs are the first line of treatment. However, pre-clinical studies have pointed out that antidepressants are not entirely efficacious and that the quality of the living [...] Read more.
Depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a high impact on the worldwide population. To overcome depression, antidepressant drugs are the first line of treatment. However, pre-clinical studies have pointed out that antidepressants are not entirely efficacious and that the quality of the living environment after stress cessation may play a relevant role in increasing their efficacy. As it is unknown whether a short daily exposure to environmental enrichment during chronic stress and antidepressant treatment will be more effective than just the pharmacological treatment, this study analyzed the effects of fluoxetine, environmental enrichment, and their combination on depressive-associated behavior. Additionally, we investigated hippocampal neurogenesis in mice exposed to chronic mild stress. Our results indicate that fluoxetine reversed anhedonia. Besides, fluoxetine reversed the decrement of some events of the hippocampal neurogenic process caused by chronic mild stress. Conversely, short daily exposure to environmental enrichment changed the deterioration of the coat and anhedonia. Although, this environmental intervention did not produce significant changes in the neurogenic process affected by chronic mild stress, fluoxetine plus environmental enrichment showed similar effects to those caused by environmental enrichment to reverse depressive-like behaviors. Like fluoxetine, the combination reversed the declining number of Ki67, doublecortin, calretinin cells and mature newborn neurons. Finally, this study suggests that short daily exposure to environmental enrichment improves the effects of fluoxetine to reverse the deterioration of the coat and anhedonia in chronically stressed mice. In addition, the combination of fluoxetine with environmental enrichment produces more significant effects than those caused by fluoxetine alone on some events of the neurogenic process. Thus, environmental enrichment improves the benefits of pharmacological treatment by mechanisms that need to be clarified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Functional Aspects of Adult Neurogenesis)
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TP-Link AC5400 Tri Band WiFi Gaming Router(Archer C5400X) –
Article
Analysis of Film Forming Law and Characteristics for an Air Static Spray with a Variable Position of the Plane
Coatings 2021, 11(10), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11101236 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
In order to accurately establish the film thickness distribution model of a static spraying plane with air gun displacement, the film forming law and characteristics of the static spraying plane with air gun displacement were analyzed. The spray simulation model was established by [...] Read more.
In order to accurately establish the film thickness distribution model of a static spraying plane with air gun displacement, the film forming law and characteristics of the static spraying plane with air gun displacement were analyzed. The spray simulation model was established by the Euler–Euler method, and the spray process and film forming condition were calculated. The numerical simulation results show that oblique spraying has a large influence on the near-surface liquid velocity. With the increase in the spray angle, the droplets at the edge of the torch diffuse to the inclined direction, and the uniformity of the coating distribution becomes worse. Spraying height has a large influence on droplet trajectory. The coating thickness decreased significantly with the increase in spraying height, and the coating diffused in the air increased. With the increase in spraying height, the more obvious the droplet diffusion at the edge of the torch, the worse the uniformity quality of the coating. In order to ensure better spraying quality, the spraying height and angle should be controlled within a reasonable range at the same time. Spraying experiments verified the film forming law and characteristics of static spraying with gun displacement. Full article
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Article
A Multi-Stage Fault Diagnosis Method for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Based on Support Vector Machine with Binary Tree
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6526; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206526 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
The reliability and durability of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are vital factors restricting their applications. Therefore, establishing an online fault diagnosis system is of great significance. In this paper, a multi-stage fault diagnosis method for the PEM fuel cell is [...] Read more.
The reliability and durability of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are vital factors restricting their applications. Therefore, establishing an online fault diagnosis system is of great significance. In this paper, a multi-stage fault diagnosis method for the PEM fuel cell is proposed. First, the tests of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under various fault conditions are conducted. Specifically, prone recoverable faults, such as flooding, membrane drying, and air starvation, are included, and different fault degrees from minor, moderate to severe, are covered. Based on this, an equivalent circuit model (ECM) is selected to fit impedance spectroscopy by the hybrid genetic particle swarm optimization algorithm, and then fault features are determined by the analysis of each model parameter under different fault conditions. Furthermore, a multi-stage fault diagnosis model is constructed with the support vector machine with the binary tree, in which fault features obtained from the ECM are used as the characteristic inputs to realize the fault classification (including fault type and fault degree) online. The results show that the accuracy of the basic fault test and subdivided fault test can reach 100% and 98.3%, respectively, which indicates that the proposed diagnosis method can effectively identify flooding, drying, and air starvation of PEM fuel cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Batteries, Fuel Cells and Supercapacitors Technologies)
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Editorial
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Alloys
Metals 2021, 11(10), 1617; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11101617 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Titanium and its alloys are widely used engineering materials within the aerospace, automotive, energy, and chemical industries [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Alloys)
Review
Stimulus-Response Conflict Tasks and Their Use in Clinical Psychology
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10657; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010657 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
This article reviews the historical usage of the concept of ‘conflict’ in psychology and delineates the design and development of three basic conflict tasks (Stroop, Flanker, Stop Signal). Afterwards, important theoretical concepts to account for conflict processing are introduced. In the second part, [...] Read more.
This article reviews the historical usage of the concept of ‘conflict’ in psychology and delineates the design and development of three basic conflict tasks (Stroop, Flanker, Stop Signal). Afterwards, important theoretical concepts to account for conflict processing are introduced. In the second part, the usage of these tasks in clinical psychology is considered. The article closes with some reflections regarding factors that may have been hitherto largely neglected in this respect. Full article
Article
Improving Machine Learning Classification Accuracy for Breathing Abnormalities by Enhancing Dataset
Sensors 2021, 21(20), 6750; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206750 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as coronavirus disease (COVID)-19, has appeared as a global pandemic with a high mortality rate. The main complication of COVID-19 is rapid respirational deterioration, which may cause life-threatening pneumonia conditions. Global healthcare [...] Read more.
The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as coronavirus disease (COVID)-19, has appeared as a global pandemic with a high mortality rate. The main complication of COVID-19 is rapid respirational deterioration, which may cause life-threatening pneumonia conditions. Global healthcare systems are currently facing a scarcity of resources to assist critical patients simultaneously. Indeed, non-critical patients are mostly advised to self-isolate or quarantine themselves at home. However, there are limited healthcare services available during self-isolation at home. According to research, nearly 20–30% of COVID patients require hospitalization, while almost 5–12% of patients may require intensive care due to severe health conditions. This pandemic requires global healthcare systems that are intelligent, secure, and reliable. Tremendous efforts have been made already to develop non-contact sensing technologies for the diagnosis of COVID-19. The most significant early indication of COVID-19 is rapid and abnormal breathing. In this research work, RF-based technology is used to collect real-time breathing abnormalities data. Subsequently, based on this data, a large dataset of simulated breathing abnormalities is generated using the curve fitting technique for developing a machine learning (ML) classification model. The advantages of generating simulated breathing abnormalities data are two-fold; it will help counter the daunting and time-consuming task of real-time data collection and improve the ML model accuracy. Several ML algorithms are exploited to classify eight breathing abnormalities: eupnea, bradypnea, tachypnea, Biot, sighing, Kussmaul, Cheyne–Stokes, and central sleep apnea (CSA). The performance of ML algorithms is evaluated based on accuracy, prediction speed, and training time for real-time breathing data and simulated breathing data. The results show that the proposed platform for real-time data classifies breathing patterns with a maximum accuracy of 97.5%, whereas by introducing simulated breathing data, the accuracy increases up to 99.3%. This work has a notable medical impact, as the introduced method mitigates the challenge of data collection to build a realistic model of a large dataset during the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
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ZEUS Everyday Beard Care Kit – USA MADE – Beard Shampo
Article
Morpho-Anatomical and Biochemical Characterization of Embryogenic and Degenerative Embryogenic Calli of Phoenix dactylifera L.
Horticulturae 2021, 7(10), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7100393 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
The study of morpho-anatomical aspects, metabolic changes of proteins, antioxidant substances, as well as phenolic compounds in embryogenic callus (EC) and degenerative embryogenic callus (DEC) was the aim of the present investigation. Ability to form somatic embryos (SEs) was associated with the softness [...] Read more.
The study of morpho-anatomical aspects, metabolic changes of proteins, antioxidant substances, as well as phenolic compounds in embryogenic callus (EC) and degenerative embryogenic callus (DEC) was the aim of the present investigation. Ability to form somatic embryos (SEs) was associated with the softness of the EC, which exhibited a white or creamy color and was composed of isodiametric cells containing dense cytoplasm, conspicuous nuclei and minimal vacuoles with observed mitotic activity. Furthermore, protein, reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASC) concentrations and the ratio between ASC and dehydroascorborbic acid (DHA) were increased significantly in the EC in comparison to the DEC. In addition, the phenolic extract of the EC was proved to have higher scavenging activity than the extract from the DEC. A loss of embryogenic competence in the DEC was correlated with the presence of more rigid clumps and such calli had a yellowish to brown color and no cell division could be observed in the cells of such aggregates as the cells had large vacuoles and they have very thick walls. Moreover, these morphological and anatomical observations of the DEC were accompanied by accumulations of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid (DHA), H2O2, total soluble phenolic compounds and overaccumulation of naringenin. Alternations in cellular metabolism can affect and regulate the morphogenesis of somatic embryos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Tissue Culture to Horticulture)
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Article
Longitudinal Assessment of Tau-Associated Pathology by 18F-THK5351 PET Imaging: A Histological, Biochemical, and Behavioral Study
Diagnostics 2021, 11(10), 1874; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11101874 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Several common and debilitating neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the intracellular accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which are composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), NFTs are accompanied by extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ), but primary tauopathy disorders are marked by the accumulation [...] Read more.
Several common and debilitating neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the intracellular accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which are composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), NFTs are accompanied by extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ), but primary tauopathy disorders are marked by the accumulation of tau protein alone, including forms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), among others. 18F-THK5351 has been reported to bind pathological tau as well as associated reactive astrogliosis. The goal of this study was to validate the ability of the PET tracer 18F-THK5351 to detect early changes in tau-related pathology and its relation to other pathological hallmarks. We demonstrated elevated in vivo 18F-THK5351 PET signaling over time in transgenic P301S tau mice from 8 months that had a positive correlation with histological and biochemical tau changes, as well as motor, memory, and learning impairment. This study indicates that 18F-THK5351 may help fill a critical need to develop PET imaging tracers that detect aberrant tau aggregation and related neuropathology in order to diagnose the onset of tauopathies, gain insights into their underlying pathophysiologies, and to have a reliable biomarker to follow during treatment trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Imaging)
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Article
Iterative Learning Sliding Mode Control for UAV Trajectory Tracking
Electronics 2021, 10(20), 2474; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10202474 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
This paper presents a novel iterative learning sliding mode controller (ILSMC) that can be applied to the trajectory tracking of quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) subject to model uncertainties and external disturbances. Here, the proposed ILSMC is integrated in the outer loop of [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel iterative learning sliding mode controller (ILSMC) that can be applied to the trajectory tracking of quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) subject to model uncertainties and external disturbances. Here, the proposed ILSMC is integrated in the outer loop of a controlled system. The control development, conducted in the discrete-time domain, does not require a priori information of the disturbance bound as with conventional SMC techniques. It only involves an equivalent control term for the desired dynamics in the closed loop and an iterative learning term to drive the system state toward the sliding surface to maintain robust performance. By learning from previous iterations, the ILSMC can yield very accurate tracking performance when a sliding mode is induced without control chattering. The design is then applied to the attitude control of a 3DR Solo UAV with a built-in PID controller. The simulation results and experimental validation with real-time data demonstrate the advantages of the proposed control scheme over existing techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aircraft Systems with Autonomous Navigation)
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Fetish Fantasy Garter Belt 5.5 inch Strap On Dildo Set, Black
Article
Multi-Source Coupling Based Analysis of the Acoustic Radiation Characteristics of the Wheel–Rail Region of High-Speed Railways
Entropy 2021, 23(10), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/e23101328 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Based on elastic mechanics, the fluid–structure coupling theory and the finite element method, a high-speed railway wheel-rail rolling-aerodynamic noise model is established to realize the combined simulation and prediction of the vibrations, rolling noise and aerodynamic noise in wheel-rail systems. The field test [...] Read more.
Based on elastic mechanics, the fluid–structure coupling theory and the finite element method, a high-speed railway wheel-rail rolling-aerodynamic noise model is established to realize the combined simulation and prediction of the vibrations, rolling noise and aerodynamic noise in wheel-rail systems. The field test data of the Beijing–Shenyang line are considered to verify the model reliability. In addition, the directivity of each sound source at different frequencies is analyzed. Based on this analysis, noise reduction measures are proposed. At a low frequency of 300 Hz, the wheel-rail area mainly contributes to the aerodynamic noise, and as the frequency increases, the wheel-rail rolling noise becomes dominant. When the frequency is less than 1000 Hz, the radiated noise fluctuates around the cylindrical surface, and the directivity of the sound is ambiguous. When the frequency is in the middle- and high-frequency bands, exceeding 1000 Hz, both the rolling and total noise exhibit a notable directivity in the directions of 20–30° and 70–90°, and thus, noise reduction measures can be implemented in these directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Information Theory in Acoustics II)
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Article
Exploring Physicians’ Perspectives on the Introduction of Complementary Foods to Infants and Toddlers
by , , , , , and
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3559; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103559 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Complementary feeding is the subject of many recommendations regarding the benefits of its use, illustrating its crucial impact on further health. However, it still poses a significant problem for caregivers, and thus for doctors. This survey focused on nutritional problems faced by the [...] Read more.
Complementary feeding is the subject of many recommendations regarding the benefits of its use, illustrating its crucial impact on further health. However, it still poses a significant problem for caregivers, and thus for doctors. This survey focused on nutritional problems faced by the parents of infants and toddlers, as well as how physicians deal with these problems. Based on the responses from 303 doctors, it was determined that the time and sequence of introducing complementary foods raise the greatest doubts in parents. This study also found that at least one-third of pediatricians experience difficulties in providing effective nutritional counseling. Increasing the nutritional awareness of physicians can allow them to provide more appropriate support to parents. Full article
Article
Assessment of Sieverts Law Assumptions and ‘n’ Values in Palladium Membranes: Experimental and Theoretical Analyses
Membranes 2021, 11(10), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11100778 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Palladium and palladium alloy membranes are superior materials for hydrogen purification, removal, or reaction processes. Sieverts’ Law suggests that the flux of hydrogen through such membranes is proportional to the difference between the feed and permeate side partial pressures, each raised to the [...] Read more.
Palladium and palladium alloy membranes are superior materials for hydrogen purification, removal, or reaction processes. Sieverts’ Law suggests that the flux of hydrogen through such membranes is proportional to the difference between the feed and permeate side partial pressures, each raised to the 0.5 power (n = 0.5). Sieverts’ Law is widely applied in analyzing the steady state hydrogen permeation through Pd-based membranes, even in some cases where the assumptions made in deriving Sieverts’ Law do not apply. Often permeation data are fit to the model allowing the pressure exponent (n) to vary. This study experimentally assessed the validity of Sieverts’ Law as hydrogen was separated from other gases and theoretically modelled the effects of pressure and temperature on the assumptions and hence the accuracy of the 0.5-power law even with pure hydrogen feed. Hydrogen fluxes through Pd and Pd-Ag alloy foils from feed mixtures (5–83% helium in hydrogen; 473–573 K; with and without a sweep gas) were measured to study the effect of concentration polarization (CP) on hydrogen permeance and the applicability of Sieverts’ Law under such conditions. Concentration polarization was found to dominate hydrogen transport under some experimental conditions, particularly when feed concentrations of hydrogen were low. All mixture feed experiments showed deviation from Sieverts’ Law. For example, the hydrogen flux through Pd foil was found to be proportional to the partial pressure difference (n ≈ 1) rather than being proportional to the difference in the square root of the partial pressures (n = 0.5), as suggested by Sieverts’ Law, indicating the high degree of concentration polarization. A theoretical model accounting for Langmuir adsorption with temperature dependent adsorption equilibrium coefficient was made and used to assess the effect of varying feed pressure from 1–136 atm at fixed temperature, and of varying temperature from 298 to 1273 K at fixed pressure. Adsorption effects, which dominate at high pressure and at low temperature, result in pressure exponents (n) values less than 0.5. With better understanding of the transport steps, a qualitative analysis of literature (n) values of 0.5, 0.5 < n < 1, and n > 1, was conducted suggesting the role of each condition or step on the hydrogen transport based on the empirically fit exponent value. Full article
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Article
Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Green Development Cooperation Network among Belt and Road Initiative Regions and Countries
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11216; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011216 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
There is a global need to jointly build the green Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in order to develop a philosophy of ecological civilisation and achieve sustainable development. This paper aims to analyse the temporal and spatial characteristics of the green development cooperation [...] Read more.
There is a global need to jointly build the green Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in order to develop a philosophy of ecological civilisation and achieve sustainable development. This paper aims to analyse the temporal and spatial characteristics of the green development cooperation (GDC) network among BRI regions and countries and explore the reasons for its formation. To this end, the first step was to analyse the spatial and temporal characteristics of green development capability in six regions of 104 BRI countries from 2013 to 2019 using the synthetic evaluation model and entropy method. Next, social network analysis was used to analyse three characteristics of the GDC network: network structure, node structure, and community structure. Moreover, the indicators of network strength and network correlation were used to estimate the structural characteristics of the entire GDC network, while degree centrality, betweenness centrality, and closeness centrality were used to estimate the role and status of countries in the GDC network. In addition, modularity optimisation was used to analyse the community structure and regional effects of the GDC network. The results show that (1) the green development capability of the BRI countries has spatial and temporal heterogeneity. (2) The GDC network among the BRI countries has been initially formed, and has the characteristics of high connectedness, high efficiency, low density, and low hierarchy. (3) The GDC network has community structure and regional effect, showing polycentric and hierarchical characteristics. (4) China, Russia, and the European countries have stronger radiating and controlling power. Central Asian countries along the land Silk Road and Indian Ocean countries along the maritime Silk Road play a significant role as intermediaries and bridges, while the BRICS and Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) countries play a vital role as the central actors. Finally, some theoretical and practical implications are put forward to provide a blueprint for jointly achieving the sustainable development goals. Full article
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Review
Reviewing the Benefits of Grazing/Browsing Semiarid Rangeland Feed Resources and the Transference of Bioactivity and Pro-Healthy Properties to Goat Milk and Cheese: Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Inflammation and Hepatic Steatosis Prevention
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2942; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102942 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
The rangeland is an ecological resource that provides multiple benefits for environment and agriculture. Grazing/browsing on rangelands is a useful and inexpensive means to produce food derived from animal products. The aim of this study was to review the benefits of producing milk [...] Read more.
The rangeland is an ecological resource that provides multiple benefits for environment and agriculture. Grazing/browsing on rangelands is a useful and inexpensive means to produce food derived from animal products. The aim of this study was to review the benefits of producing milk and cheese under this system in terms of bioactivity and the health benefits of their consumption in model animals. To conduct this review, we particularly considered the experiments that our research group carried out along the last fifteen years at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán in Mexico. Firstly, we examined the forages consumed by goats on the rangelands in terms of plant bioactive compound occurrence and their concentration. Further, goat milk and cheese coming from (1) grazing animals, (2) animals managed indoors, and from (3) animals managed indoor supplemented with rich plant bioactive compounds, were analyzed. Milk was discussed to modulate the negative effects of high-fat diets in mice. Forages consumed by goats on the rangelands showed a close correlation between antioxidant activity assessed by the DPPH+ radical with total flavonoid and total polyphenol contents (TPC). Milk concentration of PUFA, MUFA, and n-3 fatty acids from grazing goats (4.7%, 25.2%, and 0.94% of FAME) was higher than milk from goats fed indoor diets (ID). Similar results were shown in cheese. TPC was higher in cheese manufactured with milk from grazing goats (300 mg of GAE/kg of cheese) when compared to cheese from milk goats fed ID (60 mg of GAE/of cheese). Acacia pods are a semiarid rangeland feed resource that transfers pro-healthy activity, inhibited in vitro lipid peroxidation (inhibition of TBARS formation) and diminished the damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, in vivo assessment revealed that Acacia species increased free radical scavenging (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and anti-inflammatory activity. The results highlight that grazing/browsing practices are superior to indoor feeding in order to promote the transference of bioactive compounds from vegetation to animal tissue, and finally to animal products. Grazing management represents a better option than indoor feeding to enhance bioactivity of milk and cheese. Supplementation with rich-bioactive compound forages increased total polyphenol, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoid concentrations in milk and cheese. The consumption of goat milk prevents obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, and hepatic steatosis while on a high-fat diet induced obesity in mice. Full article
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Article
Helplessness among University Students: An Empirical Study Based on a Modified Framework of Implicit Personality Theories
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11100630 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and within a very short period of time, teaching in the 2020 summer term changed from predominantly on-site to online instruction. Students suddenly faced having to adapt their learning process to new demands for which they may have [...] Read more.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and within a very short period of time, teaching in the 2020 summer term changed from predominantly on-site to online instruction. Students suddenly faced having to adapt their learning process to new demands for which they may have had both insufficient digital skills and a lack of learning resources. Such a situation carries the risk that a substantial number of students become helpless. The aim of our empirical study was to test a hybrid framework of helplessness that includes both objective causes of helplessness and students’ subjective interpretations of them. Before lectures or courses began, students of a full-scale university were invited to participate in an online survey. The final sample consists of 1690 students. Results indicate that objective factors as well as their subjective interpretations contributed to the formation of helplessness. Full article
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Review
Urban Heritage Facility Management: A Scoping Review
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9443; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209443 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
This review examines current discussions from the cross-section study between urban heritage conservation and urban facility management fields in the academic literature from 2011–2020. The purpose is to identify the gaps within the examined papers to reveal the challenges and opportunities in the [...] Read more.
This review examines current discussions from the cross-section study between urban heritage conservation and urban facility management fields in the academic literature from 2011–2020. The purpose is to identify the gaps within the examined papers to reveal the challenges and opportunities in the combined fields using the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)’s recommendation of the historic urban landscape (HUL) approach. The scoping review procedure was followed. The six critical steps and four supporting tools of the HUL approach were used to analyze the examined papers. Most aspects of urban heritage management within the body of literature were directly related to urban-scale facility management. The potential usage of building information modelling became one of the most discussed technological aspects. The expansion of the public–private partnership model into the public–private–people partnership is considered as a new potential business model. At the same time, the adaptive reuse approach is deemed to be the most sustainable method of managing heritage areas. This scoping review identified the financial tools as the most under-researched urban heritage facility management component. Therefore, it needs to be endorsed among the scientific communities to improve the knowledge and provide operable guidelines for the authorities and practitioners in the urban heritage field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Facilities)
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Article
Optimal Techniques for EUS-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Pancreatic Solid Masses at Facilities without On-Site Cytopathology: Results from Two Prospective Randomised Trials
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(20), 4662; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10204662 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Background: EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has emerged as the primary modality for the cytologic diagnosis of pancreatic solid masses. The aim of this study is to determine whether technical factors including suction (S), non-suction (NS), capillary sampling with stylet slow-pull (CSSS), and the [...] Read more.
Background: EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has emerged as the primary modality for the cytologic diagnosis of pancreatic solid masses. The aim of this study is to determine whether technical factors including suction (S), non-suction (NS), capillary sampling with stylet slow-pull (CSSS), and the number of needle actuations (to-and-fro needle movements) may affect the accuracy of EUS-FNA for pancreatic solid masses at facilities without on-site cytopathology. Methods: The diagnostic yield of malignancy, blood contamination and cellularity at each sample acquired from EUS-FNA with or without S and different numbers of actuation (10, 15 and 20) were measured (study I). The optimal actuation number was determined and a head-to-head comparison trial between S and CSSS was performed (study II). Results: In study I, significant blood contamination was seen using S with 20 compared with 15 actuations (p = 0.002). Diagnostic yield of malignancy was not significantly different between 10, 15, and 20 actuations with S, whereas it was statistically higher for 15 actuations compared with 10 actuations with NS (p = 0.001). In study II, no difference was noted in diagnostic yield with 15 actuations between S and CSSS (88% vs. 90%, p = 0.74). Conclusions: Increasing actuation in NS resulted in a better diagnostic yield for EUS-FNA without significant blood contamination, whereas increasing actuation in S did not change the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA while causing significant blood contamination. With 15 actuations, the diagnostic yield was comparable between S and CSSS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
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